Coral is extensively imitated and by many materials. What is probably the most attractive counterfeit of coral is a suitably stained vegetable ivory, but this may be identified by the dot like cell structure seen when the surface is examined by a lens. Mixtures of rubber and gypsum powdered marble mixed with glass and coloured […]


Dyeing has been used to produce the desire Ox-blood (dark-red) and angel skin (pink without any trace or orange) colours from colourless of pale coloured Corallium and Occulinacea coral. The colour may be applied only in se­lected areas and may be stable or may fade. Bleaching with 30 percent hydrogen peroxide solution for 12 to […]

Information on Blue and Black Coral

blue coral

                                                              BLUE CORAL This material, unusual in appearance and colour and of limited use, is obtained from the skeleton of Heliopera coerulea, a type of coral which lives mainly in the seas around the Philippines. APPEARANCE The most striking characteristic of blue coral is its colour, which is bright blue or gray blue, sometimes with […]

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Information on Pink and White Corals


Not often seen on the market a few decades ago, pink coral is now widely available; large quantities of it come from the Orient.         The Mediterranean type (a special variety of the more common red coral) is very compact and, like red coral, takes a good polish, with barely visible organic […]

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Information on Corals


Coral can be described as the collective skeletons of a vast number of the curious little organisms known as Coral Polyps. These begin life as tiny free-swimming very primi­tive organisms living in the warm waters of the sea at depths of 10-500 feet or so. These eventually attach themselves to a previous coralline growth where […]

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Treatments Done On Amber


The amber may be clear and transparent, when it is known as clear, or it may be slightly turbid owing to a number of contained gas bubbles and then resembling goose fat, and hence termed fatty. A variety containing a vast number of bubbles making the material quite cloudy is called bastard, while bony or […]

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Simulants Of Amber


There has been confusion since early days between fossil resins and those of more recent date. To the former category being Ambers from the Baltic, Sicily, Burma, Romania and some of those from the Dominican Republic, while the latter cover the resins and gums kown as copal, dammar and kauri. The former are millions of […]

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Identification Of Amber


The tests for the identification of fossil resins, and their separation from plastic or other common substitutes, fall into two categories; the profoundly simple and the extremely complex. The normal range of equipment avail­able to the gemologist – refractometer, dichroscope, heavy liquids, etc- has no place in the day-to-day identification of amber. However, most of […]

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Occurences Of Amber


The principal source of amber is in the Baltic Sea along the shores of Lithuania near Konigsberg. There are two sources of amber in the district : the sea amber, which has been washed up on the shore by wave action; and the pit amber obtained by open-pit mining for the amber drops (block amber) […]

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Formation Of Amber – Early History


Amber is of vegetable origin. consisting of more or less considerably altered fossilised resin of trees long since extinct, it is not a mineral. Amber is a fossilised tree resin, the parent tree being a species of pines (Pinus Succinifera). The trees grew together with palm trees. Camphor, laurels bay trees, oaks and yews in […]

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Inclusions in Amber


Organic-flora and fauna of prehistoric times-especially insects inorganic – minerals, liquids and gases. In 1835 Christian Aycke put forward an unusual sug­gestion regarding amber trees, “Pines succiniferce.” He was of the opinion that the trees must have been in a deceased condition to exude the resin in very excessive quantities. At times, whole portions of […]

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Amber Fossilization


Amber is the fossilized resin from ancient forests. Amber is not produced from tree sap, but rather from plant resin. Sap is the fluid that circulates through a plant’s vascular system, while resin is the semi-solid amorphous organic substance secreted in pockets and canals through epithelial cells of the plant. This aromatic resin can drip […]

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