Treatments Done On Amber


The amber may be clear and transparent, when it is known as clear, or it may be slightly turbid owing to a number of contained gas bubbles and then resembling goose fat, and hence termed fatty. A variety containing a vast number of bubbles making the material quite cloudy is called bastard, while bony or […]

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Simulants Of Amber


There has been confusion since early days between fossil resins and those of more recent date. To the former category being Ambers from the Baltic, Sicily, Burma, Romania and some of those from the Dominican Republic, while the latter cover the resins and gums kown as copal, dammar and kauri. The former are millions of […]

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Identification Of Amber


The tests for the identification of fossil resins, and their separation from plastic or other common substitutes, fall into two categories; the profoundly simple and the extremely complex. The normal range of equipment avail­able to the gemologist – refractometer, dichroscope, heavy liquids, etc- has no place in the day-to-day identification of amber. However, most of […]

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Occurences Of Amber


The principal source of amber is in the Baltic Sea along the shores of Lithuania near Konigsberg. There are two sources of amber in the district : the sea amber, which has been washed up on the shore by wave action; and the pit amber obtained by open-pit mining for the amber drops (block amber) […]

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Formation Of Amber – Early History


Amber is of vegetable origin. consisting of more or less considerably altered fossilised resin of trees long since extinct, it is not a mineral. Amber is a fossilised tree resin, the parent tree being a species of pines (Pinus Succinifera). The trees grew together with palm trees. Camphor, laurels bay trees, oaks and yews in […]

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Inclusions in Amber


Organic-flora and fauna of prehistoric times-especially insects inorganic – minerals, liquids and gases. In 1835 Christian Aycke put forward an unusual sug­gestion regarding amber trees, “Pines succiniferce.” He was of the opinion that the trees must have been in a deceased condition to exude the resin in very excessive quantities. At times, whole portions of […]

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Amber Fossilization


Amber is the fossilized resin from ancient forests. Amber is not produced from tree sap, but rather from plant resin. Sap is the fluid that circulates through a plant’s vascular system, while resin is the semi-solid amorphous organic substance secreted in pockets and canals through epithelial cells of the plant. This aromatic resin can drip […]

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Properties of Amber


Lustre Amber has resinous lustre. Some softer Dominican amber  is waxy. On exposure to air amber alters due to oxidation, Initially pale osseous amber acquires a thin clear layer like porcelain. Amber generally shows deterioration on surface to such an extent that the rusty-red crust crumbles away exposing a new surface which will undergo the […]

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Information on Amber


Million years ago barks of trees in the forests of some parts of the world began to seep globs of sticky resin. This aromatic resin oozed down the sides of trees, as well as filling internal fissures, trapping debris, such as seeds, leaves, feathers and insects. As geologic time progressed the forests were buried and […]

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Diamond gemstone


Chemical Composition : Carbon C Crystal system: Isotropic or Cubic System Habit : The octahedron and the more complex trisoctahedron and hexoctahedron (form in which the normal octahedral face is replaced by three faces and six triangular faces respectively), rhombic dodecahedron may also occur. Twinned octahedra, known as macles, are common. Whereas the tetrahedron (a […]

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Garnet gemstones


This is an isomorphous group of minerals which include several species used in jewellery, the most important of which are grossular (tsavorite), grossularite (hessonite), pyrope, almandine, spessartite and andradite with its sub-variety demantoid. GENERAL PROPERTIES OF THE GROUP Chemical Composition : All consists of a double silicate and calcium or magnesium or manganese, aluminium or […]

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Chemical composition: Calcium Fluoride Crystal characteristics: Cubic system. Usually occurs in cubes. Colour: Violet blue, purple, green yellow, pink, brown, blue, etc. Rarely colourless. Massive purple and whitish banded variety known as “Blue John”. Often parti coloured fluorspar is common. Physical properties: Hardness – 4, too soft to retain polish. S.G. – 3.18, R.I. – […]

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